14E: Putting It All Together 5

14E: Putting It All Together 5
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Lesson 14E: Putting It All Together 5 Quiz
Question #1: Please upload your worksheet for this lesson.
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Question #2: SUPERSTITIONS

Did you know that in 2011, Tiger’s manager, Jim Leyland would not change or wash his boxer shorts while the Tigers’ winning streak continued? Baseball great, Wade Boggs would write the Hebrew word Chai, meaning “life” on his bat before each game. These strange behaviors are superstitions, and they have been around since humans have communicated.

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Question #3: Based on the paragraph above, the projected noun is:
Question #4: SUPERSTITIONS

A superstition is an irrational belief that stems from fear of something bad happening. However, some people use superstitions to preserve good luck. Superstitions can also arise when people try to find reasons for either fortunate or unfortunate occurrences that have affected them. So, people either practice or avoid a tradition to keep status quo.

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Question #5: SUPERSTITIONS

Long ago, superstitions emerged when people started to create all kinds of bizarre explanations for illness, death, and unfortunate natural events. When things went wrong, human nature was to blame. So, people combatted their fear by developing traditions.

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Question #6: SUPERSTITIONS

Over time, people came to develop magnificent stories that led to a common practice. Primitive societies created all kinds of fantastic explanations for illness, death, and natural events. Stories that alleviated people’s stress led to following rituals or thoughts.

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Question #7: Based on the paragraph above, the projected noun is:
Question #8: SUPERSTITIONS

Many famous people who achieved great things have been superstitious. For example, Napoleon, the great French general who won countless battles, was afraid of cats. Rousseau, a famous French philosopher, believed that he had a ghost for a companion. And Sir Walter Scott would never go to Melrose Abbey when the full moon shone brightly.

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Question #9: Based on the paragraph above, the projected noun is:
Question #10: SUPERSTITIONS

Practicing superstitions also dates to The Last Supper, where Judas Iscariot, an attendee, spilled salt. He was a treacherous man who hurt many people. So, his spilling salt became associated with his lies. If you look closely at Leonardo da Vinci’s painting of the Last Supper, you can see that Judas has knocked the salt over with his elbow. And the fear of Judas’ evil spreading brought on a salt tradition that continues today. For instance, some people who accidentally spill salt from a salt shaker have been known to shake salt or throw a pinch over their left shoulder to ward off evil spirits.

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Question #11: Based on the paragraph above, the projected noun is:
Question #12: Treacherous means:
Question #13: SUPERSTITIONS

There is also a well-known superstition that shattering a mirror brings you seven years of bad luck. Breaking a mirror, a common household accident, means that your soul’s reflection is also shattered. But another superstition is available to help speed the seven-year curse: pick up the broken pieces and throw them into a river flowing south!

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Question #14: Based on the paragraph above, the projected noun is:
Question #15: SUPERSTITIONS

There is a unique 17th century banana superstition. This nautical superstition claims that bananas onboard ships spell disaster. This dates back from when slave ships sometimes travelled with a cargo of bananas. The fruit was known to release deadly methane gas into the hold, suffocating African slaves trapped inside.

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Question #16: Based on the paragraph above, the projected noun is:
Question #17: Suffocating means:
Question #18: SUPERSTITIONS

And if you have creepy feelings about the number 13, you are not alone. Even though we are within the age of science, where today’s scientists would likely scoff at superstitions, practicing superstitions has not destroyed people's beliefs in irrational things. So, if you think of a superstition as a tradition that brings peace-of-mind, why not comfort yourself comfort with a silly tradition?

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Question #19: LEARNED BEHAVIOR

Ivan Pavlov, a Russian scientist, made a profound impact on the understanding of human behavior. His discovery started with carefully controlled experiments on dogs. But this discovery was accidental.

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Question #21: LEARNED BEHAVIOR

Pavlov was doing research on the digestive system in mammals. He was collecting information about dogs’ digestive processes by studying the triggers that make dogs salivate. So, he collected saliva from the dogs’ mouths, already knowing that dogs produced saliva to help break down food. To get the saliva, he had an experimenter put meat powder in the laboratory dogs' mouths, which made them drool. The meat powder was a stimulus to get the dogs' mouths to water, but soon he noticed that the dogs drooled even before they got the meat powder. In fact, their mouths began to water at the sight of the experimenter’s lab coat. The experimenter had become the stimulus. Then, when the door opened for the experimenter to feed the dogs, the opened door became the stimulus! The stimuli caused a conditioned response, something that is learned. This response happens when an animal can associate one stimulus with another.

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Question #22: Based on the paragraph above, the projected noun is:
Question #23: A stimulus is:
Question #24: LEARNED BEHAVIOR

Pavlov wondered if other stimuli could get the dogs to salivate, so he paired the meat powder with the sound of a tuning fork, the turning on of a light, a buzzer, and the ringing of a bell. He got the same results, which was an automatic physical response, called a reflex, one of the most basic actions that animals perform. Sneezing in a dusty place and shivering in the cold are reflex actions. But Pavlov's experiments showed that reflexes could be taught, which led the way to further thinking on whether behavior is natural or learned.

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Question #26: A reflex is:
Question #27: LEARNED BEHAVIOR

Pavlov's research was remarkable and it brought about new research methods and ideas. He continued his work on the nervous system of the dog, experimenting with different stimuli. His work became the basis for much of modern psychology.

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