14A: Putting It All Together 1

14A: Putting It All Together 1
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Lesson 14A: Putting It All Together 1 Quiz
Question #1: Loving that Apple

Have you ever heard of a love apple? Contrary to how it sounds, the “love apple” was not a desired piece of fruit to eat, nor would it help you find your true love. In fact, people believed that the fruit was deadly.

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Question #2: Loving that Apple

What was so terrifying about this fruit? It was originally found in South America and was brought to Europe by explorers. European residents were afraid to eat the succulent fruit because they thought it was poisonous and could cause death. If you have not figured it out, the “love apple” is a tomato, which is really a fruit (more specifically, a berry). The “love apple” name came about long ago when jilted suitors threatened to eat the tomato if their lovers rejected them. The name stuck for years, and the tomato was neither popular nor eaten.

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Question #3: Loving that Apple

Years later, a brave young man gathered residents in a town square and he consumed a tomato in front of the horrified crowd. To the onlookers’ surprise, the man remained alive, and the myth of the love apple slowly disappeared. Although it took years for people to believe that the tomato was safe to eat, the fruit eventually spread across Europe and continental America, as it became a part of traditional family meals.

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Question #4: Loving that Apple

So how did the tomato get such a bad reputation? Nobody knows for sure, but history alludes to the fact that the acid in a tomato could have absorbed some of the lead in early dinner plates, causing a deadly reaction. One negative incident might have been the beginning of many years without eating delicious tomatoes!

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Question #5: The Hamburger

People love hamburgers, but did you know that this food did not originate in America? The original concept of the hamburger evolved from Russia during the Middle Ages. Russians ate this raw meat delicacy and called it Tartar steak. They shredded the raw meat with a dull knife and formed it into patties.

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Question #6: The Hamburger

Then along came some German sailors who visited Russia. They were intrigued with this delicious meat, so they brought it back to Hamburg. But traditionally, the Germans did not eat raw meat and many were not comfortable with the concept. So, they decided to broil the outside. Thus, the hamburg steak was born.

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Question #7: The Hamburger

In the nineteenth century, many Germans ventured to America and these immigrants brought the hamburg steak tradition along with them. Louis Lassen, a cook in New Haven, Connecticut, modified the hamburg steak by sandwiching it between two pieces of bread. But the true American hamburger came into existence in 1904, at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis. A harried cook at the fair quickly slapped broiled beef patties between buns and served them. The American hamburger gained popularity.

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Question #8: The Hamburger

At first people made the new food creation from scraps of poor quality meat. But this American phenomenon grew and the scraps were not enough. The demand for greater quantities of hamburger could only be met by using better quality meat. While the hamburger marvel spread, a side industry of condiments developed, such as ketchup and relish. This industry grew along with the popular burger, and today, both burgers and condiments are still selling strong!

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Question #9: How Reading Makes You a Better Person

People that cozy in a corner with a fascinating novel know the pleasures of reading, but what if reading is more than just a simple pleasure? Researchers found that people who read stimulating novels experienced lasting neurological changes. The study revealed reading intriguing novels rewires people’s brains. While reading, the brain can be tricked into that thinking you, the reader, are genuinely part of the
story, deeply connecting with a character. These brain changes suggest that reading a novel can transport a person into the body of a person of a good story. Stories have been known to put the reader in someone else’s shoes in a figurative sense. Now researchers are seeing that something may also be happening biologically.

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Question #10: How Reading Makes You a Better Person

By reading novels, readers become more morally conscious people. In our day-to-day existence, we often only see one side of a person, oblivious to what is really going on in other’s lives. We are incognizant of what could be driving their words and actions. Perhaps the seemingly weird classmate is unbeknownst to her peers, helplessly watching her parents go through a divorce at home. Or, maybe the attention-seeking student at school has recently lost his brother, who used to compliment him and quell his insecurities. When we read a novel, we get the whole picture; we see a character’s complete life. All the empathetic emotions we feel for characters in novels actually help to wire our brains to have the same sort of sensitivity toward people in the real world.

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Question #11: How Reading Makes You a Better Person

To a certain extent, everyone is somewhat deficient in empathy and understanding of others. We all tend to think mainly about ourselves and often forget everyone else. It is through reading books that might change us. Books might help us with learning further about the world, and how to be a more empathetic and understanding person.

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Question #12: How Reading Makes You a Better Person

But researchers say that people should not look at reading to exclusively improve ourselves. Neuroscience and sociology show that books really do make us better people, yet it is important to never lose sight of the real meaning of reading. Enjoying a good book should always be the ultimate pleasure!

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Question #13: Who Invented the Zipper?

In 1893 Whitcomb Judson, a Chicago mechanical engineer, patented a device, the clasp locker, the forerunner of the modern zipper. It had only two problems: it did not work and no one wanted to buy it. When Judson displayed it at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair. he sold only 20.

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Question #14: Who Invented the Zipper?

Unconcerned, Judson developed a company and made several improvements, including changing the name from clasp locker. A patent was issued for the new design and name changed to the separable fastener.

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Question #15: Who Invented the Zipper?

Judson’s company started to make money when B. F. Goodrich ordered a huge quantity of them for their rubber galoshes. Judson liked the z-z-zip sound that they made and thus, came up with the new name, zipper.

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Question #16: Who Invented the Zipper?

At first, zippers were mainly for boots and tobacco pouches. Almost 20 years later, in the 1930s, the fashion industry began promoting zippers for children's clothes. Then designers started installing zippers in men's trousers.

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Question #17: Who Invented the Zipper?

If you look closely at a zipper, you will probably see the letters YKK stamped on the pull-tab. That is the trademark for the Yoshida Manufacturing Company. They started manufacturing the zippers in 1934. Today, the YKK Corporation has plants around the world and the US manufacturing center is in Macon, Georgia. It is the largest manufacturer of zippers in the world, producing over 1.5 billion zippers a year.

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Question #18: Who Invented the Zipper?

Today zippers are everywhere: on clothes, luggage, handbags, and countless other products. Despite competitive products, such as snaps and Velcro, it appears that the zipper is here to stay.

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Question #19: Slang

A professor at the King’s College of London is receiving emails with interesting words and their definitions. Words, such as toop and tonk are emailed from people around the world. Dr. Tony Thorne, the director of the Language Center at the college, is collecting these words so that he can develop a new dictionary. These newly invented words called slang, are being used by everyday people because some groups or individuals are in need for a new word to vividly describe something that is not currently in the dictionary.

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Question #20: Slang

The origin of most slang words comes from a response to people's’ current situations. For instance, many Americans use the term cup of Joe for coffee. This term derived from sailors who made fun of their supervisor, Joe, who had a bitter, sharp persona. Since coffee had the same acidic attribute, the phrase stuck. A crabapple, an acidic, bitter fruit, is used to describe a bitter, old man. Dust bunnies, dust piles that can accrue to the size of a bunny rabbit, came about when people needed a more vivid word describing an unruly amount of dust. Because slang words have more colorful, playful, and vivid images for situations, many new terms stuck with the public. Words such as ankle biters (infants), ramping up (job training), or Googling (searching the internet) have spread worldwide.

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Question #21: Slang

Since the expansion of both internet and television, Dr. Thorne thought that a dictionary will help to expand slang language. For instance, in Great Britain, the word bum refers to the posterior side. An American may may come across this unknown word while reading an interview about a woman in Great Britain. A slang dictionary would help to bridge the language gap.

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Question #22: Slang

Thorne thinks that future generations will also benefit by his dictionary because it will help to define terms of certain eras. For instance, Shakespearean verses were the slang of the Elizabethan era, better known as the English Renaissance (1558-1613). And having a source, such as Sparknotes.com’s No Fear Shakespeare, helps millions of students today, much like what Tony Thorne is trying to produce. As Dr. Thorne continues with his work, his hope is to not only define each term, but also to explain its origins, meanings, and typical conversational uses.


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Question #23: Upload your completed worksheet.
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