13E: Advanced Paragraphs Content 5

13E: Advanced Paragraphs Content 5
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Lesson 13E: Advanced Paragraphs Content 5 Quiz
Question #1: Using Math to Build Skyscrapers

Gazing at a skyscraper, you will see that it has many stories and reaches high into the sky. That is why a very tall building is often called a skyscraper. It takes a lot of planning to build one.

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Question #2: Using Math to Build Skyscrapers

An architect first designs the building and draws up plans showing what it will look like. Then these plans go to a structural engineer.

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Question #3: Using Math to Build Skyscrapers

The structural engineer studies the plans and figures out how to make the building stand up so that forces do not topple it. Gravity pulls the weight of the building and its contents downward and wind blows the building sideways. Earthquakes shake a building, heat makes a building expand, and cold makes it contract. The engineer designs the building to hold up against these forces and does this by designing the building's support features. A building's main support features are beams, columns, and foundations. Beams are horizontal features that carry the building's weight between columns. Columns are vertical and carry the building's weight downward. The foundation in the ground supports the entire building. Support features provide the sturdy framework inside buildings, much like a skeleton provides a sturdy framework inside human bodies.

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Question #4: Using Math to Build Skyscrapers

To design the building's support features, engineers use math. The engineer starts at the top floor and works down to the foundation, which carries all the weight. The engineer figures out all the forces acting on each point of the building. It takes many math calculations to figure out how to build a sturdy building that will sustain forces. These days, engineers use computers and software programs to assist them.

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Question #5: Using Math to Build Skyscrapers

Once the engineer figures out the forces, she selects the best support feature for each part of the building. There are many choices. Beams, columns, and foundations come in many different sizes and shapes and are constructed from different materials. The engineer also figures out how all the support features connect.

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Question #6: Using Math to Build Skyscrapers

Finally, the engineer draws up plans of the building and all its support features. People who build the skyscraper follow both the architect's and the structural engineer's plans.

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Question #7: Time to Read!

Thomas A. Edison wanted to invent an inexpensive glowing bulb that would burn for hundreds of hours so that people could read at night. At the time, people were using candles or oil lamps. His primary issue was finding a filament, a thin wire inside a vacuum-sealed globe that would provide light. He figured out how to vacuum seal the globe by heating up the bulb at the same time as pumping out the air. He wanted to find a material with a high resistance and melting point. This would enable the bulb make it glow for thousands of hours.

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Question #8: Time to Read!

In 1879, Edison made horseshoe-shaped filament out of sewing thread. He placed it in a vacuum-sealed glass globe and it burned for 14.5 hours. Edison knew that he was on the right track. The thread had been coated with powdered carbon and he cooked the filament in a furnace, where it became carbonized. In months to come, Edison and his assistants would have everything in sight carbonized: wood shavings, paper Bristol board, fishing line, cork, even a hair from an assistant's beard. They continued to search for the right material.

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Question #9: Time to Read!

After months of methodical testing, Edison found the perfect material by accident. Edison mindlessly ran his fingers along a palm-leaf fan and the texture of the hard bamboo rim caught his attention. Since he tried carbonizing a plethora of materials, he decided to carbonize the bamboo fibers. This fiber proved to be sturdier and longer-lasting than anything else.

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Question #10: Time to Read!

Immediately, the Great Bamboo Hunt began. Edison sent out scouts to bring back samples of every variety on earth. They brought back more than 6,000 bamboo samples. They carbonized and tested each one, but the best came from a plantation in Japan. In the years to come, this plantation would supply the filament material for millions of lamps around the world.

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Question #11: Curfew Laws

Teen Curfew laws have been around a long time. The first teen curfew law was established in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1880. This required that kids stay inside school during school hours. A teen curfew law is an ordinance that prohibits teens, usually under 18, from being in public or business establishments during certain hours. Over the years, the curfew has expanded.

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Question #12: Curfew Laws

Cities or county governments enact curfew laws. Even over 100 years ago, many communities had curfew laws, including small towns that had little or no crime. For instance, curfew laws were during the night hours, where teens were required to be home during certain hours, like from 11:00 p.m.- 6:00 a.m. Even though widespread violence and crime were not as common in America as they are now, children were still expected to be home at night, unless they were with their parents.

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Question #13: Curfew Laws

With the recent rise in violent crimes committed by juveniles, America's cities and towns instill curfew hours during certain times. For instance, in Detroit, Michigan, a curfew law exists the day before Halloween and the day of Halloween, where teens must be inside from 6:00 p.m. – 6:00 a.m. This is due to a deluge of vandalism on Devil’s Night, the night before Halloween. During Halloween, Detroit teens under the age of 15 need to be off the streets from 8:00 p.m.– 6:00 a.m., unless they are accompanied by an adult. Minors that are ages 16-17 have until 9:00 p.m. Adults and their children are legally charged if they violate curfew laws.

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Question #14: Curfew Laws

In the past, curfew laws have varied from town to town. Some required children age 13 and under to be home by 10:00 p.m., while other towns raised the age to 16. Some curfew laws made it illegal for anyone under 18 to be loitering on the city streets after 10:00.

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Question #15: Curfew Laws

Some towns had curfew horns that reminded everyone about the law. The horn might blow at 9:45 p.m. as a warning to give everyone a chance to get home, and then blow again at curfew time. Although some teens grumbled a bit, for the most part, people accepted the curfew as something to keep the community safe.

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Question #16: Curfew Laws

Much teen crime happens late at night, where some unsupervised and troublesome teens commit vandalism and theft. Parents are being held responsible for keeping them safe at home so that curfew laws get their attention.

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Question #17: Curfew Laws

Taking unlawful kids off the streets and making parents pick them up at the police station, along with making parents attend court and paying expensive fines is one way to reduce crime. Ultimately, curfew laws help to make our city streets safer for everyone.

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Question #18: Pump it Up!

During physical exercise at high temperatures, people can suffer severe dehydration and lose body salts. Perspiration can reduce body weight by 2 percent, and that causes a person’s blood volume to drop, which can be dangerous for the body’s blood pressure. Dehydration can cause fatigue, muscle cramping, decreased coordination, and poor body performance.

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Question #19: Pump it Up!

In the early 1960’s a team of researchers at the University of Florida started a project to develop a product that would rapidly replace the fluid and salts lost during extreme exertion. In 1965, Robert Cade, a kidney researcher and professor of medicine, invented a formula to combat dehydration. The secret to his recipe was electrolytes, which help retain fluids when perspiring.

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Question #20: Pump it Up!

Since football players lose a great amount of body fluid when practicing a playing games, the researchers decided to test the new formula on 10 members of the University of Florida football team. The name of the team was the Gators, derived from the word alligator. They eventually decided that the name for their new formula would be Gatorade.

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Question #21: Pump it Up!

The football team drank the Gatorade for an entire season and that same year, they had a winning season. They continued to outplay their opponents during the second half of the game, when the opposition team lost their energy. When the Gators won the 1967 Orange Bowl, the opposing team, Georgia Tech, complained that the Gatorade helped the Gators win. From that time on, more coaches realized that the teams needed to consume more fluids to avoid dehydration.

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Question #22: Pump it Up!

Robert Cade eventually sold his company to Quaker Oats, and the three initial flavors of the drink increased to 30 flavors. Whether sports players are drinking it or pouring it over coaches’ heads, Gatorade remains the number one sports drink in the United States.

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Question #23: No More Homework

A Florida school district has eliminated traditional homework for all elementary school students, asking instead that they simply read for 20 minutes each night. The new policy is an example of the ongoing debate over the benefits and drawbacks of homework, especially for younger students. The policy will not apply to students in middle school and high school.

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Question #24: No More Homework

The decision was based on research showing that reading boosts academic performance for younger students, while traditional homework might not. Although several studies found evidence of a positive correlation between homework and student achievement, the correlation was strongest for students in 7th through 12th grade. For younger students, there was a weak relationship between homework and performance.

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Question #25: No More Homework

A debate continues amongst school districts throughout the country. Some school districts believe that a small amount of homework for young students is good. But other education experts advocate for no-homework, arguing that there is not enough evidence to indicate that homework has a positive effect on elementary students. As the debate continues throughout the country, many school districts continue to pile on the homework for youngsters, believing that students who study more learn more.

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Question #26: Life in a Bubble

Many people are unaware that there is a small community under a plastic bubble in the Arizona desert, called the Biosphere 2. This bubble is a famous, yet controversial site. The University of Arizona presently owns the structure, and it serves for lifelong learning about our Earth.

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Question #27: Life in a Bubble

Biosphere 2 was developed in 1984, in Oracle, Arizona, not far from Tucson. This huge 7,200,000-cubic-foot glass and steel construction covered 1,600 acres and contained several separate ecosystems, including a desert, a rainforest, and a 900,000-gallon ocean. The climatic conditions—humidity, temperature, and air quality were regulated by sensors and could be adjusted as needed. For example, a rainstorm could be created to increase the humidity. These adjustable features of Biosphere 2 made it an ideal location to perform experiments to help determine the effects of such climatic changes as global warming, as well as trying to solve problems like world hunger.

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Question #28: Life in a Bubble

Though promising for this environment to be self-sufficient, these the initial colonists, who resided in the bubble had a lot of trouble regulating the environment. Many reportedly lost weight and had to food smuggled into the bubble. Oxygen levels became dangerously low; most plants and animals died. Squabbles frequented between the resident scientists, along with having management issues. In 1994, eight people who had moved into the environment with great hopes two years earlier moved out in failure. This huge project abruptly ended.

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Question #29: Life in a Bubble

In June 1995, Columbia University took over the site and picked up the project to run smaller experiments. Columbia was successful for 8 years. But in 2005, the University had developers knocking at their door, wanting to demolish the land and use it for new housing and retail stores. Eventually, the University of Arizona stepped in, purchased the project, and took over the research. They assumed full ownership by 2011 after obtaining donations and grants.

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Question #30: Upload your completed worksheet.
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