13B: Advanced Paragraphs Content 2

13B: Advanced Paragraphs Content 2
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Lesson 13B: Advanced Paragraphs Content 2 Quiz
Question #1: FORK IT OVER!

While sitting down to dinner in the early days of our country, in front of you would be a large plate, a knife, and a spoon. The fork came much later to this country. It took until 1630 when the average family had forks. This was the time during the American Revolution.

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Question #2: FORK IT OVER!

Even when forks were initially introduced, they were not widely used because they were thought to be effeminate in some parts of Europe. This belief continued when the Europeans eventually settled in America. They thought that strong men should pick up food with their fingers. Even the clergy concurred with the male population, contending that it was almost a sin to eat with a fork. They said that fingers were made before forks and they were an unnatural substitute for the “God-given fingers”.

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Question #3: FORK IT OVER!

Over time, forks slowly gained acceptance. But the earliest ones did not look like the ones that we have today. They had only two tines and these tines were not delicate; they were long and looked more like a weapon, as opposed to looking like an eating utensil. They looked more like a twin-pointed battle spear, much like today’s carving fork for large turkeys.

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Question #4: FORK IT OVER!

Today’s forks have either three or four tines. You might find it baffling how a simple eating utensil took so long to develop. As hundreds of complex inventions came about long before the fork, it is unknown as to why the fork took so long to become an accepted utensil at the dinner table!

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Question #5: BRAIN FREEZE

Have you ever taken a delicious lick of ice cream or long sip of a frozen slushy, and then, all the sudden, your head begins to pound? This pain is brain freeze. As the cold temperature of your ice cream or cold drink hits your mouth’s nerves, the ache comes on super-fast. It lasts from just a few seconds to a few minutes, but it eventually subsides. Then, most people go back to enjoying their favorite frozen treat.

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Question #6: BRAIN FREEZE

Brain freeze does not actually freeze our brains, but it may feel like it. It happens when a cold substance, like ice cream, is felt behind both the nose and the roof of the mouth. When the bundle of nerves in this part of the mouth sense something cold, they send an instant message to the brain, causing the arteries and blood vessels to react. As a result, the head starts to suddenly throb.

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Question #7: BRAIN FREEZE

After feeling a brain freeze, the fastest way to get rid of it is by slowly drinking warm water after sensing that it is coming on. Another quick brain freeze fix is to press the tongue or the tip of a finger against the roof of the mouth palate. This warms up the nerves similarly like warm water.

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Question #8: BRAIN FREEZE

To prevent brain freeze, the easiest way is to avoid consuming ice-cold food and beverages. Also, people should eat ice cream or frozen snacks very slowly, especially during that initial bite or lick. This allows the nerves in the palate to gradually be accustomed and not overwhelmed with the new and sudden cold sensation.

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Question #9: BRAIN FREEZE

Some people also avoid brain freeze by eating cold food toward the front of the mouth. This helps to avoid the sensitive nerve endings toward the back of the mouth near the upper roof. Then, it is usually okay to gradually move the food toward the back of the mouth.

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Question #10: BRAIN FREEZE

But the best way to eliminate brain freeze is by heating cold food to a warmer temperature before eating it. Sticking a bowl of ice cream in the microwave for a couple of seconds before putting it in your mouth will also do the trick. But a soupy, warm bowl of chocolate chip ice cream may not be as delicious. However, it is a sure-fire way to eliminate the severe head pain that can come on quickly and severely after eating frozen treats.

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Question #11: SMILE!

Today, taking a speedy snapshot or selfie takes only a quick second, especially with most people having cameras in their phones. But did you ever notice that before taking that snapshot, most people smile? Smiling for the camera is rather new, considering that the first photographs were taken in the 1820s, almost 200 years ago. If you have ever seen an older picture, usually in black-and-white, you will notice that smiles are difficult to find in the early years of photography.

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Question #12: SMILE!

During the 1920s and ‘30s, 100 years after the invention of photos, smiles started to appear in photographs. Why did it take over a hundred years to smile? There are many theories.

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Question #13: SMILE!

Some historians think that before the 1920’s, there was limited dental care; so many people had unhealthy teeth. They knew that their teeth looked bad and did not want to show them in pictures.
Another theory for not smiling was due to the amount of time that it took to pose for earlier photographs. With the cameraperson having to adjust each shot (there was no autofocus back then), people could not hold a smile for a long time.

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Question #14: SMILE!

Various historians feel that customs in the 1800’s were the force behind the lack of smiles. Before the invention of photographs, artists hand painted portraits of people. People were accustomed to posing for long periods of time and could not hold an extended smile. So, it was only natural not to smile for a photo as well.

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Question #15: SMILE!

Additionally, early photographers thought that smiling was an indecorous look, since those people that smiled or grinned were associated with wickedness, madness, loudness, or drunkenness. Since the photographers had reputations and wanted to be proper, they insisted that their subjects not smile.

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Question #16: SMILE!

Other historians argue that smiling in a photo is not an innate process. Photographers had to tell the subjects to smile. Over years, people learned to smile for photographs. Since the rise of snapshot photography, smiles became more prevalent. In the early 1900s, after the brownie camera and Kodak camera became popular for consumers, the advertising for cameras showed pictures of lots of smiling people. This also led to a gradual surge of smiles.

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Question #17: SMILE!

Many people view old pictures as sad, because people did not smile. Many think that those unsmiling faces were due to sadness or hard times. Throughout history, people have always laughed and smiled. Research has shown that whether people smile or do not smile in portraits, it has little to do with how happy they are. So, when you look at your great-great grandfather’s old pictures, you can feel assured that most of the time, not smiling did not reflect an unfortunate circumstance.

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Question #18: SHOULD WE CONTINUE TO TEACH CURSIVE?

We were all taught cursive writing in elementary school, but as adults, many people do not continue to use it. Some school reformers believe that teaching cursive writing is pointless. Some also believe that because of technology, cursive is becoming obsolete.

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Question #19: SHOULD WE CONTINUE TO TEACH CURSIVE?

Dating back to ancient times, people have been writing in cursive. Originally, cursive was used to make writing faster. Since the typewriter or printing press had not yet been invented, all books and publications were hand-written.

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Question #20: SHOULD WE CONTINUE TO TEACH CURSIVE?

After the invention of the typewriter in 1868, people started swaying away from the cursive form. People now view cursive writing as a way to personalize our written language. In fact, many teachers view cursive writing as an art form. Written thoughts on paper develop aesthetic feelings, much like music and art.

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Question #21: SHOULD WE CONTINUE TO TEACH CURSIVE?

Despite the surge of technology, elementary teachers continue to teach cursive writing. Some educators state that with all the school subjects that need to be taught, teachers do not have time to teach cursive. But many educators continue to push cursive writing since it is art and also considered a way to individualize written expression. Think of the term language arts, a term used in both elementary school and some middle schools.

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Question #22: SHOULD WE CONTINUE TO TEACH CURSIVE?

Research has reflected that many teachers prefer to teach both print and cursive. Despite the age of computers, educators think that there is a need for cursive writing to survive. What are your thoughts?

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Question #23: FACE BLINDNESS

Some people have failed to recognize their close friends or family members, particularly when seen unexpectedly. Some do not recognize an acquaintance after a haircut. When these situations occur, a person who cannot recognize someone familiar may have face blindness—officially called prosopagnosia. As many as 1 in 50 people have some degree of it, although many lead normal lives without even realizing that they have it.

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Question #24: FACE BLINDNESS

Symptoms vary widely among those with the condition. Some may find it hard to recognize facial expressions in other people. While watching TV or movies, people may struggle to remember who the different characters are, based on facial recognition.

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Question #25: FACE BLINDNESS

Another trait that typically goes along with face blindness is social anxiety. Failing to understand facial expressions can lead to difficulty with forming relationships or making friends. People with face blindness may avoid social interactions because these situations may contribute to having social anxiety.

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Question #26: FACE BLINDNESS

Studies show that face blindness not connected to lower intelligence or memory issues. It is usually an inherited lifelong problem. Because face blindness makes people with this condition feel inadequate, many end up feeling as though that they have a learning disability.

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Question #27: FACE BLINDNESS

Studies suggest that around two percent of people have face blindness. Unfortunately, there is no specific medication or therapy to treat face blindness. But some people develop strategies to help them cope, such as recognizing a person's voice, hairstyle, dress, or gait. Other strategies known to be helpful include creating "secret signs" with friends and carrying around a notebook to record details and names of people.

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Question #28: FACE BLINDNESS

Many people with face blindness lead ordinary lives without realizing that they have this condition. However, if a person suspects that they he has this disorder, there are various tests available to diagnose people who show symptoms of prosopagnosia.

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Question #29: TIME TO ESTIMATE!

People overestimate and underestimate constantly. Whether it is eye-balling the quantity for a recipe, or estimating how long a project will take, estimating is part of our everyday lives.

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Question #30: TIME TO ESTIMATE!

Bonnie Floyd is a restaurateur whose well-run cafe features a daily fish special. Bonnie feels that it is important for fish to be extremely fresh. “Unfortunately,” she says, “even well-refrigerated fresh fish often tastes ‘fishy’ on the second day.” Thus, Bonnie habitually underestimates the number of customers who will order the daily fish special. She would rather disappoint some patrons than waste food and money. Also, she is confident that most customers will be willing to order something else and be equally happy with their choices.

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Question #31: TIME TO ESTIMATE!

Ralph Ross is a business executive who frequently travels. Ralph absolutely detests waiting at the airport for flights to leave. As a result, he always used to depart for the airport at the last possible moment. By cutting his time so close, he occasionally missed flights altogether. Ralph’s wife, Allison, who often drives him to the airport, finally put her foot down and refused to take him under such stressful conditions. As a result, Ralph reluctantly pledged that in the future, he would leave for the airport with plenty of time to spare. This compromise assures him of making his flight and also makes his wife less miserable.

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Question #32: TIME TO ESTIMATE!

Overestimating or underestimating can lead to wasted food or money, missed airline flights, or other disasters. However, carefully considered over- or underestimating can help people function more effectively. The next time when you are uncertain whether to overestimate or underestimate, decide your outcome first. For instance, would you rather live with a surplus or dearth? Based on your preferred outcome, the decision of over- or underestimating will then decide for you!

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Question #33: NOISY EATING

If you were ever irritated by a person slurping soup in a restaurant or breathing heavily next to you in a movie theatre, you may have a condition called misophonia. This condition was discovered in 2001. It is a disorder where people are not tolerant of normal bodily sounds, like chewing, nose blowing, sneezing, or, clicking a pen on and off.

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Question #34: NOISY EATING

According to research, when people have misophonia, a body “trigger” sound is heard and the brain’s frontal lobe develops more than normal activity. This increased brain activity makes the heart work faster and can make people sweat heavily.

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Question #35: NOISY EATING

Misophonia is different from normal sound irritations like: the pitter patter of rain when trying to sleep, loud restaurant noises, water boiling in a quiet room, a crying baby, someone shouting, or finger nails screeching a chalk board. Some sounds will bother some people yet not bother others. But those with misophonia will be bothered by sounds that most people barely hear— common body noises that most brains ignore. Our brains become immune and ignore these everyday sounds. But when a person has misophonia, something that may seem unbothersome may drive a person with this condition crazy!

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Question #36: Upload your completed worksheet.
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