11D: Advanced Multiple Paragraphs 4

11D: Advanced Multiple Paragraphs 4
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Lesson 11D: Advanced Multiple Paragraphs 4 Quiz
Question #1: DO WISDOM TEETH MAKE YOU WISE?

Wisdom teeth may not necessarily make a person wise. Long ago, wisdom teeth got their name because these were the last teeth to form in the mouth. This normally happens when a person matures into a young adult, between ages 17-25, and these teeth are another set of back molars, normally two on the top and two on the bottom.

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Question #2: DO WISDOM TEETH MAKE YOU WISE?

This name came to use because people thought that when these last teeth finally erupted, people were much wiser, as opposed to teeth in early childhood.

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Question #3: DO WISDOM TEETH MAKE YOU WISE?

Wisdom teeth are extra remnants from our evolutionary past. These four large molars in the back of our mouths served us during our ancient days. They ground food better, so that people could chew coarse food that was available at the time. These back teeth secured early man’s survival.

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Question #4: DO WISDOM TEETH MAKE YOU WISE?

These days, we eat mostly cooked food, which is much easier to chew, so nature is starting to adapt. As time progresses, increased numbers of people are born with fewer wisdom teeth. Some people never get them.

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Question #5: DO WISDOM TEETH MAKE YOU WISE?

When wisdom teeth start to erupt, many people do not have extra room in their mouths. Because the teeth normally start to develop below the gum line, many people will feel pain. When the teeth have nowhere to go, they become “impacted.” The next step is removing them.

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Question #6: DO WISDOM TEETH MAKE YOU WISE?

In some cases, impacted wisdom teeth may cause no apparent or immediate problems. But because they are nearly impossible to clean, they may be more vulnerable to tooth decay and gum disease than other teeth are.


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Question #7: DO WISDOM TEETH MAKE YOU WISE?

As our ancestors believed that people received these teeth when they became wiser, new research supports the old theory. The brain continues to grow and develop right through adolescence, and most researchers believe that the brain does not fully mature until the age of 25. So maybe our ancestors were correct. We are much wiser adults by the time we acquire these last undesirable teeth.

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Question #8: THE SEQUOIA

One of the largest living things on earth is the sequoia tree. These giant trees are in a family of giant sequoias, including the giant sequoias and the redwoods. The name “sequoia” came from honoring a Cherokee Indian who invented a writing system.

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Question #9: THE SEQUOIA

There are two kinds of sequoia trees: the redwood and the giant sequoia. The redwoods are the tallest and the giant sequoia is the widest. Redwoods grow to more than 300 feet and the trunks of many are more than 10 feet across. These trees can grow as tall as a 26-story building!

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Question #10: THE SEQUOIA

Giant sequoias are not as tall as redwoods, but their trunks can reach a diameter of 36.5 feet across. They are still quite tall, growing about 275 feet tall.

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Question #11: THE SEQUOIA

The sequoias are also one of the longest living things on earth. They have no known enemies; none has died from old-age, rot, disease, or insects. Although lightning has hit most treetops, the trees just keep on growing. Numerous fires have swept through forests where sequoias grow, but they never burn like the rest. The General Sherman sequoia is about 3,500 years old, and it dates back to 1500 B.C. This tree started to grow at the time of the pyramids of Egypt.

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Question #12: THE SEQUOIA

The secret to longevity lies within the sequoia’s bark. The bark from a normal tree may be about 1/16 inch. But the sequoia’s thick bark ranges from 6 to 12 inches. This protects the tree from mother nature’s disasters, including forest fires. Although lightning and fires have charred them, the flames cannot reach deep enough to burn the live wood. Nature has supplied these trees with a superb coat of armor!

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Question #13: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

In the Netherlands, scientists are studying the mouth; more specifically, its role as the human food processor. Their findings have discovered new insights about what people do every day but would rather not think about.

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Question #14: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

The way you chew, for example, is as unique and consistent as the way you walk or fold your shirts. There are fast chewers and slow chewers, long chewers and short chewers, right-chewing people, and left-chewing people. Some of us chew straight up and down, while others chew side-to-side, like cows. Your oral processing habits are like a fingerprint.

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Question #15: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

You may have heard that the jaw has powerful muscles, but did you know that the jaw has the strongest muscles in our body? A peanut between two molars are powerfully crushed by the jaw. Then, within a millisecond, the jaw muscles sense the yielding and reflexively let up. Without that reflex, the molars would continue to grind and destroy its own teeth with no intact nut between.

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Question #16: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

To keep jaw muscles from smashing the teeth, our bodies have an automated braking system where the jaw knows its own strength. The faster and more wildly you close your mouth, the less force the muscles are willing to apply without a conscious thought.

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Question #17: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

Teeth and jaws are impressive not for their strength but for their sensitivity. For instance, human teeth can detect a grain of sand or grit 1/25,000 of an inch. That is the thickness of a thin piece of hair!

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Question #18: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

But the study of the mouth as it relates to food includes more than just the jaw and teeth. It also includes the tongue, lips, cheeks, and saliva, all working together toward the goal, bolus formation—a substance that allows people to swallow their food.

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Question #19: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

The word “bolus” is a mass of chewed, saliva-moistened food particles that is in “a swallowable state.” Bolus formation and swallowing depend on a highly coordinated sequence of neuromuscular events and reflexes.

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Question #20: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

Most of the time, while you are just breathing and not swallowing, the larynx (voice box) blocks the entrance to the esophagus. When a mouthful of food or drink is ready to be swallowed, the larynx must close and rise out of the way, both to allow access to the esophagus and to close off the windpipe and prevent the food from “going down the wrong way.” With the help of the epiglottis, a flaplike cartilage that sits tipping over the front opening of the larynx in 45-degree upright position, it flattens backward to cover the larynx entrance, pushing the larynx forward and out of the way. This process prevents food or drink from entering the lungs and windpipe and can descend the esophagus properly for digestion.

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Question #21: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

To allow this to happen, the bolus is held momentarily at the back of the tongue, and the larynx moves quickly enough so the food can head down the right way. If this series does not happen correctly, there is a choking hazard. Also, inhaled food and drink creates an infection, progressing to pneumonia.

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Question #22: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

A less lethal and more entertaining swallowing misstep is nasal regurgitation. Here the soft palate fails to seal the opening to the nasal cavity. This is more common with children because they are often laughing while eating. Also, this can happen because their swallowing mechanism is not fully developed.

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Question #23: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

Round foods are particularly treacherous because they match the shape of the trachea. If a grape goes down the wrong way, it blocks the tube so completely that no breath can be drawn around it. Hot dogs, grapes, and round candies take the top three slots in a list of foods that are apt to kill. A candy called Lychee Mini Fruity Gels has killed enough times for the Food and Drug Administration to have banned its import.

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Question #24: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

The safest foods, of course, are those that are mushy. But most people that chew enjoy crunching. Crispiness and crunchiness appeal to us because they signal freshness. To a certain extent, we eat with our ears. Researchers have found that our enticement to eat is based on physical properties with a little bit of taste and aroma.

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Question #25: THE MARVELS IN YOUR MOUTH

When we think about eating, most people do not think about the symphony of body mechanics that needs to work together perfectly for swallowing. So, the next time that you take a bite of food, marvel your mouth!

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Question #26: A NEW TASTE FOR THE HUMAN PALATE

We can all tell if a food tastes sweet, sour, salty, spicy, sharp (as in sharp cheese), or bitter. But researchers have discovered and classified a new basic taste—fatty. The scientific term is “oleogustus,” This word comes from the Latin translation that means oil or fat. When the taste nerves send messages to the brain, it sends a message that is different from a salty or bitter taste. So, scientists felt that they needed to develop a new distinct taste category.

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Question #27: A NEW TASTE FOR THE HUMAN PALATE

Since people can discern a fatty taste difference in foods, adding this new category sensation will help people to make healthier food choices.

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Question #28: A NEW TASTE FOR THE HUMAN PALATE

Research also found that the fatty taste comes along with a creamy feel within the mouth. They say that fatty food contains triglycerides, a molecule with three fatty acids. This creates a smooth feeling within the mouth. It very much resembles a feeling that makes your mouth want to pucker when you taste a sour food, like a lemon.

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Question #29: A NEW TASTE FOR THE HUMAN PALATE

Because people can physically detect the high-fat content in foods without reading the labels, the smooth sensation can encourage them to make healthier food choices. Limiting high-fat foods will reduce heart disease and many other future health problems.

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Question #30: EARLY DOCTORS

For almost 2000 years and until the late 19th century, bloodletting treated many ailments. This treatment involved letting a type of worm, called a leech, suck blood from the patient. People believed that blood was a vital substance for the body to function and determined a person's personality and health. Since the bloodstream transported diseases, they believed that removing the bad blood would restore a balance to the blood and health would return.

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Question #31: EARLY DOCTORS

At the time, little was known of the workings of the human body and bloodletting became the standard treatment for various conditions. It came to be used as a cure-all. Women were bled to keep them from blushing, while members of the clergy were bled to prevent them from thinking sinful thoughts.

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Question #32: EARLY DOCTORS

From the eleventh to the eighteenth centuries, barbers were the people to go to if you needed to be bled. This custom explains the significance of the traditional barber 's pole: the white stripes stand for bandages and the red stripes for blood.

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