11A: Advanced Multiple Paragraphs 1

11A: Advanced Multiple Paragraphs 1
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Lesson 11A: Advanced Multiple Paragraphs 1 Quiz
Question #1: HAIR IT IS…

Have you ever wondered why some people have curly hair and others have straight hair? The answer lies within the follicles in your head, the openings in your skin where hair grows. The follicles are tiny openings that allow the hair roots inside your head to grow outside your scalp.

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Question #2: HAIR IT IS…

Follicles come in many different shapes, such as round, oval, and flat. Hairs that come out of oval follicles are curly, and the flatter the oval, the curlier the hair. Those hairs that grow out of circular tube-like follicles are straight.

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Question #3: HAIR IT IS…

How does curly hair curl? The flatter oval openings make each hair strand grow faster on one side. If you looked at curly hair under a microscope, you would see that the hair strand grows out of the oval follicle at a sharp angle. This is because the shorter side of each hair strand cannot keep up with the growth of the other side. So the result of this uneven growth is that the hair twists as one side grows longer than the other, creating the curl. If you can’t envision this, think of using scissors to curl a ribbon for gift-wrapping. Looking closely, the ribbon has tiny ridges on both sides. But as you firmly slide the scissors against one side of the ribbon to flatten it, that side becomes longer, making the ribbon curl.

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Question #4: HAIR IT IS…

Did you know that hair changes texture every 7-10 years? Scientists believe that this change is due to genetics, hormones, and body chemistry. These factors may change the follicle shapes. Hair follicles grow back as your body changes. The hair on your head at age ten is not the hair that you have at age 50 because you constantly lose hair and follicles regenerate. When hair falls out, it replaces itself, and the average person loses 100 hairs per day. If your new hair follicles grow back in a different shape, you will have a new hair texture. That is why you see young children with straight hair who have curly hair as adults, and vice versa.

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Question #5: HAIR IT IS…

Your hair cells grow just below the follicles in your scalp because the hair is alive at the roots. When the hair reaches the surface of the scalp, the hair dies. The new cells push these dead cells out of the way through the follicle openings. The hair you see on your head is actually dead cells; for that reason, it doesn’t hurt to get your hair cut.

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Question #6: WHAT IS A GOOGOL?

A googol sounds like your internet search engine but it is really a number. A googol is the largest number with a name. No one can imagine just how big a googol is.

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Question #7: WHAT IS A GOOGOL?

The number ten has one zero. One hundred has two zeros. One million has six zeros. But a googol has 100 zeros and it would take you a long time to write out this number.

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Question #8: WHAT IS A GOOGOL?

You could never count to a googol in your lifetime so there is not much use for this number. After all, wealthy people may have a million dollars but no one has ever made a googol dollars. Perhaps there is a googol of grains of sand on a beach or a distant star is one-googol miles away from Earth. But no one can count that high.

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Question #9: WHAT IS A GOOGOL?

Many names for numbers come from Latin. Million is an example of a Latin word. But a googol is a made-up word.

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Question #10: WHAT IS A GOOGOL?

Now that you know the definition of a googol, think of why that term came into use. People use the Google browser to find unlimited information on the internet. Although the spelling is different, the name was probably made-up to resemble the googol number, but they changed the spelling so that it can be “user friendly.” The name googol may be spelled differently, but this household name is used every day by millions of people!

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Question #11: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

Every time you take a breath through your nose, a sticky, slippery substance, called mucus, traps all the dirt that may get in through your nose and down your throat. However, your nose has tiny hairs that trap both the mucus and dirt, bringing them to the front of your nose so that you do not ingest it. Snot is a mix of the mucus and dirt.

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Question #12: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

The mucus membranes that line the nose produces mucus, about four cups each day—and people swallow most of it. Then, although many may not notice this, it passes down the throat. Sometimes, when people have colds or allergies, the mucus thickens and builds up in the back of the throat. This is postnasal drip.

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Question #13: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

Mucus protects you from harmful elements, like dirt, dust, and other harmful things that your breathe in. If those materials got into your lungs, they could get infected or irritated and you would have trouble breathing.

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Question #14: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

Giving up milk when you have a cold is spurious. Drinking it may make you feel like you have more phlegm, but studies show that dairy products will not cause your body to make more mucus. However, lots of water is the best thing to drink when you are congested. Water helps to thin out the mucus.

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Question #15: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

Although you probably know that the nose produces mucus, you also have it in your stomach, intestines, mouth, and lungs. Thin layers of tissue that line the inside of your body, the mucus membranes, produce mucus to keep internal organs moist. This moisture protects and supports body functions.

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Question #16: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

While a woman is pregnant, thick mucus forms a plug at the opening of her cervix and seals off her uterus, where the baby grows. When her body is ready for labor, the cervix opens wider and the mucus plug drops out of the body.

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Question #17: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

Mucus also keeps the breath fresh. When people have sore throats, they should suck on menthol, the main ingredient in peppermint. The menthol works with mucus to help soothe the throat.

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Question #18: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

Usually, the mucus in your nose is clear. But when you have an infection, the body produces additional white blood cells. These cells have an enzyme, or protein, that can turn mucus yellow or green. Some of these white blood cells are always there, so people may still have green mucus when they are not sick. A blackish color may be due to dirt in the nose. Red or brownish mucus come from broken blood vessels in the nose. This sometimes causes a nose bleed.

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Question #19: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

On a cold day, many people have runny noses. The mucus drips in cold temperatures because the membranes inside the nose are warming you. The small blood vessels within the nostrils widen to boost blood flow. This causes increased mucus that helps heat up cold air before it reaches into the lungs.

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Question #20: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

A bad cold can cause a buildup of mucus in the lungs. Medications called expectorants make it thinner and easier to exit the body. Other cough medicines that do not have an expectorant will not break up mucus. They just keep you from coughing.

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Question #21: THE SNOTTY TRUTH

Although mucus may not a very appealing topic, this sticky, slippery, viscous material plays many important roles within our bodies. This slimy substance is a crucial element that enables our bodies work to sustain life.

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Question #22: THE FLYING PENGUIN

Penguins are flightless birds that are great swimmers. They lost that ability millions of years ago when their wings evolved into flippers, serving as paddles in the water. Penguins also had regular bird feet but over millions of years, the feet became webbed. The flippers and the webbed feet make penguins swift swimmers and deep divers.

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Question #23: THE FLYING PENGUIN

Scientists guess that penguins developed from a flying to a swimming bird due to a need for food. There was nothing else available, so penguins constantly dove into the water for fish.

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Question #24: THE FLYING PENGUIN

The penguin has more feathers than most other birds, with about 100 feathers per square inch. These feathers are shiny, closely spaced, and overlap to cover a penguin’s skin. The downy feathers insulate the penguin during the harsh winters. These tightly overlapping feathers also keep water away from their skin.

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Question #25: THE FLYING PENGUIN

The penguin’s feathers molt annually, usually after a breeding season. This happens because the feathers wear out during the year. The feathers become worn because penguins like to rub up against each other. Plus, they enjoy preening, where they clean, rearrange, and oil their feathers. There is also a lot of wear-and-tear because they are in constant contact with both the ground and the water.

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Question #26: THE FLYING PENGUIN

When penguins molt, new feathers grow underneath the old ones and eventually push them out. But the old feathers stay until the new ones are completely in place. During the molting process, which is between 13-34 days, the new feathers are not fully developed, so penguins lose their insulation and waterproofing abilities. For this reason, they stay out of the cold water until their plumage is restored to its optimal condition. Then they are once again ready to dive into the frigid waters.

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Question #27: GAS

Chewing gum can make you gassy because any time that you swallow air, it can lead to gas. Eating or drinking too fast also creates lots of gas. The main cause is the breakdown of food in your gut. Gas collects inside the digestive system and passes down the digestive tract. The medical name for this is flatulence.

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Question #28: GAS

Flying on a plane is another gassy situation. The air pressure affects your stomach more than your ears! Most people want to avoid an embarrassing situation, so it is best to eat very little before taking a long flight. If you eat too much, your neighbor sitting next to you may have to experience that unpleasant odor.

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Question #29: GAS

Certain food, like beans, make people very gassy. Some people soak their beans for a day. The next day, they dump out the water. Then, they cook the beans with a new batch of water. This process decreases most of the gas, but not all.

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Question #30: GAS

Carbon is an excellent resource that makes smells go away. Some people are so embarrassed with their gas that they have underwear that is lined with material made of carbon. These panties filter the odor. Also, people can light a match, which creates carbon and eliminates odors.

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Question #31: GAS

Older people have more gas than younger people. As people age, their digestive system slows down. When this happens, older people struggle more with constipation—when they cannot excrete their food down into the toilet. This back-up can make people gassy and uncomfortable.

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Question #32: GAS

Gas also comes out of the mouth, which causes a burping sound. Whether it is burping or passing gas, it is very normal. In fact, the average person passes some type of gas 13-21 times per day.

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Question #33: GAS

Although people may think that all “farts” stink, most gas is odorless. However, everyone has smelly odors sometimes. Sulfur (an invisible gas in your body) is the culprit in your system and causes that nasty odor. Although gas can be quite stinky, it is not normally a medical issue.

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Question #34: GAS

Some people have severe stomach pains with gas. This may mean many things, such as having lactose intolerance (lactose is a sugar found in dairy). This is when the chemical in dairy does not get metabolized. Other people can have a lot of gas due to celiac disease—problems with digesting gluten, which is part of grains found in most breads, baked goods, pasta, and pizza.

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Question #35: GAS

Since all people are different, some foods may give one person gas, but another person can be fine eating the same food. However, foods that are high in carbohydrates can cause more gas. This includes all grains and especially sweets.

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Question #36: GAS

High-fat foods stay in the stomach longer, so cutting back on them can help reduce gas. Less gas helps the stomach empty faster, and the faster the stomach empties, the faster gas will pass.

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Question #37: GAS

Although lighting matches and spraying air freshener can help gassy people avoid embarrassment, the best way to get rid of the smell is the outdoors. Opening a window will allow the smell to exit.

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Question #38: GAS

Another trick to help release gas is exercising. It will rid any extra air in the digestive system, which produces the gas. Another way to rid gas is pulling the belly in toward the back. This also strengthens the belly muscles too, along with getting rid of unwanted gas.

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Question #39: GAS

If you are around others and feel gas coming on, spare the embarrassment and quickly leave the room. Also, standing up, as opposed to sitting, along with relaxing is the best way to relieve gas.

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Question #40: Upload your completed worksheet.
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